Views: 6 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-05-23 Origin: Site
Epitalon a synthetic peptide, telomerase activator, and putative anti-aging drug,was identified as the putative active ingredient of bovine pineal extract epithelium.Most research on the epithelium and the epithalamus has been carried out at the St.Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology, largely supervised by Vladimir Khavinson in Russia.
In vitro studies:
Based on studies in human fibroblast cultures,Epitalon appears to induce telomere elongation in vitro by increasing telomerase activity in human somatic cells.Telomere elongation by epitalon was sufficient to exceed the Hayflick limit in human fetal fibroblast cell cultures, stopping their proliferative potential from passage 34 in control cell populations to beyond passage 44 in treated cell populations, while simultaneously increasing their telomeres.The length reaches a level comparable to that of the original cultured cells.Epitalon induces decondensation of heterochromatin near the centromere in cultured lymphocytes from samples from 76- to 80-year-old subjects.Epitalon Appears to Inhibit MMP9 Protein Synthesis in Aging Skin Fibroblasts in Vitro.
An in study in aging mice found that epitalon treatment significantly reduced the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in wild-type mice and mice characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype, consistent with increases in telomere length.Another study in aging rats found that epitalon increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase.In experiments with one-year-old female C3H/He mice, Epitalon reduced the number of spontaneous tumors and the number of metastases in mice that did develop spontaneous tumors, and it is speculated to have tumor suppressive and antimetastatic properties.In a study of chickens undergoing neonatal hypophysectomy and subsequent maturation, epitalon promoted restoration of thymus morphology,as well as thyroid structure and function.Epitalon appears to increase the proliferation of lymphocytes in the thymus, putatively increasing the production of interferon gamma by T cells.Another study in aging rats showed that continuous light, or a regimen of natural light typical of northern regions, extended lifespan in rats.
Human clinical studies
In human clinical studies, both epitalon and epithalamin significantly increased telomere length in the blood cells of patients aged 60-65 and 75-80, and they were equally effective.Epitalon and epithalamin appear to restore melatonin secretion in the pineal gland of aged monkeys and humans.Human clinical trials on samples from patients with retinitis pigmentosa found that epitalon produced a positive clinical effect in 90% of cases in the treatment group.In another human clinical trial in tuberculosis patient samples, epitalon did not appear to correct pre-existing structural aberrations of chromosomes associated with telomere degeneration, but did appear to protect against future development of additional chromosomal aberrations.A human prospective cohort study of 266 individuals over the age of 60 showed that treatment with the epithalamus (the pineal gland extract on which epitalon is based) reduced mortality by 1.6-1.8 over the next 6 years 2.5-fold reduction in mortality when combined with thymosin and 4.1-fold reduction in mortality when combined with thymosin given once a year rather than once at the start of the study.Another prospective cohort study of 79 patients with coronary heart disease over 12 years found that after 3 years of twice-annual epithalamin therapy, compared with the control group, the treatment group had lower physical endurance, circadian rhythm, and Indicators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism improved, as was a 50% reduction in cardiovascular mortality, a 50% reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular collapse and severe respiratory disease, and a 28% reduction in overall mortality.