Views: 1 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-05-10 Origin: Site
The composition of propolis varies by hive, region and season.Typically, it is dark brown, but can also be green, red, black, and white, depending on the source of the resin found in a particular hive area. Honey bees are opportunists, gathering what they need from available resources, and detailed analysis revealed that the chemical composition of propolis varies greatly from region to region, depending on vegetation.For example, in northern temperate climates, bees gather resin (resin's biological role in trees is to seal wounds and ward off bacteria,fungi and insects) from trees such as poplars and conifers.A "typical" northern temperate propolis contains about 50 components, mainly resins and balsams (50%), waxes (30%), essential oils (10%) and pollen (5%).Analysis of propolis from Henan, China found sinapinic acid, isoferulic acid, caffeic acid, chrysin.
In the Neotropics, in addition to a wide variety of trees, bees can gather resin from the flowers of the genera Clusia and Dalechampia, the only plant genera known to produce flower resin to attract pollinators.Clusia resin contains polyprenated benzophenone.In some regions of the Andean valleys of Chile and Argentina, propolis contains viscidone, a terpene from the Baccharis shrub,and prenyl acids such as 4-hydroxy-3,5 -diprenyl cinnamic acid.Overall, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and phenolics were common constituents, while coumarins, stilbenes, and lignans were less common.
Propolis has been used in traditional medicine, there is not enough evidence to rate its effectiveness in treating any disease.
Some manufacturers of stringed instruments (violins, violas, cellos, and basses) use propolis as a varnish ingredient.Tincture of propolis can be used to seal the surface of the bridge of a newly made home violin, and can be used to maintain the holes of the pan pipes.Claims that Antonio Stradivari used propolis in his instrument varnishes were disproved in 2009.