Views: 3 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-05-16 Origin: Site
Melanotan II is a synthetic analogue of the peptide hormone α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which stimulates melanin production and increases sexual arousal.It was being developed as a drug candidate for female sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction, but clinical development was halted by 2003, and as of 2018, no products containing melanotan II were on the market, and all commercial development had ceased.Unlicensed, untested, or fraudulent products sold under the name "Melatane II," purportedly effective "tanning pills," but with side effects including uneven pigmentation (which makes already Uniform pigmentation is more pronounced), new moles (nevi) and darkening or enlargement of existing moles have been reported and lead medical authorities to discourage its use.There are no scientific studies on possible long-term and permanent side effects from the use of this peptide.
In the synthesis of melanotan II, the ε-amino group of lysine and the γ-carboxyl group of aspartic acid have their orthogonal protection removed prior to carbodiimide-mediated lactamation, resulting in intermediates.This intermediate forms melanin II when attached to N-acetylnorleucine.The whole process can be completed in 12 steps, the total yield is 2.6%, no preparative chromatography is required, and the product purity exceeds 90%.
Mechanism of action
Melanotan II acts as a non-selective agonist of the melanocortin receptors MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5.Melanotan II produces melanogenesis by activating the MC1 receptor, while its clinically documented effects are thought to be related to its ability to activate the MC4 receptor (although MC3 is thought to be possibly involved as well).Other effects of melanotan II, mostly considered side effects, include flushing, nausea, vomiting, stretching, yawning, and loss of appetite (finally via activation of MC4).
Society and culture
Many products are marketed as "melanotan" or "melanotan-1" or "melanotan-2" online, in gyms and in beauty salons.Unregulated products cannot be legally sold for human use in any jurisdiction.Beginning in 2007 national health agencies began issuing warnings against their use.