Views: 3 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-05-19 Origin: Site
Azelaic acid (AzA) is an organic compound with the formula HOOC(CH2)7COOH.This saturated dicarboxylic acid exists as a white powder.It is found in wheat, rye and barley.It is a precursor to a variety of industrial products including polymers and plasticizers, and an ingredient in many hair and skin conditioners.AzA inhibits tyrosinase.
Azelaic acid is produced industrially by ozonolysis of oleic acid.The by-product is nonanoic acid.It is produced naturally by Malassezia furfur (also known as Pityrosporum ovale), a yeast that lives on normal skin. Bacterial degradation of nonanoic acid produces azelaic acid.
In plants, azelaic acid is involved in post-infection defense responses as a "distress flare".It acts as a signal to induce the accumulation of salicylic acid, an important component of the plant defense response.
Polymers and related materials:
Esters of such dicarboxylic acids are useful as lubricants and plasticizers.In the lubricant industry, it is used as a thickener for lithium complex greases.Azelaic acid and hexamethylenediamine form nylon 6,9, which is used as a plastic.
Azelaic acid is used in the treatment of mild to moderate acne, including comedo acne and inflammatory acne.It belongs to a class of drugs known as dicarboxylic acids.It works by killing the acne bacteria that infect the skin pores.It also reduces the production of keratin, a natural substance that promotes the growth of acne bacteria [clarification needed].Azelaic acid is also used as a topical gel treatment for rosacea due to its ability to reduce inflammation.It clears up the bumps and swelling caused by rosacea.The mechanism of action is thought to be through the inhibition of hyperactive protease activity that converts cathelicidin to the antimicrobial skin peptide LL-37.In topical pharmaceutical formulations and scientific studies, AzA is commonly used at concentrations of 15% to 20%, but some studies have shown that in some carrier formulations, 10% azelaic acid may be as effective as approximately 20% cream quite.
Azelaic acid used topically at a concentration of 15%-20% is effective for mild to moderate acne.In patients with moderate acne, 20% AzA twice daily for 3 months significantly reduced the number of comedones, papules and pustules;in At this strength, it is considered as effective as benzoyl peroxide 5%, tretinoin 0.05%, erythromycin 2%, and tetracycline 500mg-1000mg orally.In a comparative review of the effects of topical AzA, salicylic acid, niacinamide, sulfur, zinc, and alpha-hydroxy acids, there was more high-quality evidence of efficacy for AzA than for other agents.Results can be expected after 4 weeks of twice-daily treatment.The effect of long-term use is unknown, but it is recommended to use AzA continuously for at least 6 months for maintenance.
Azelaic acid is used to treat skin pigmentation, including melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, especially in people with darker skin types.It has been recommended as an alternative to hydroquinone.As a tyrosinase inhibitor, azelaic acid reduces melanin synthesis.According to a 1988 report, azelaic acid in combination with zinc sulfate was found to be a potent (90% inhibition) 5α-reductase inhibitor in vitro, similar to the hair loss drugs finasteride and dutasteride amine.In vitro studies evaluating the depigmenting (whitening) ability of azelaic acid in the mid-80s concluded that it was effective (cytotoxic to melanocytes) only at high concentrations.A 1996 review claimed that AzA 20% was as effective as 4% hydroquinone after three months of use without the latter's side effects, and was even more effective when used with tretinoin for the same period of time.