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What is Ectoine?

Views: 6     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-04-29      Origin: Site

Ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) is a natural compound present in a variety of bacteria.It is a compatible solute that helps organisms survive extreme osmotic pressure by acting as an osmolyte as a protective substance.Ecrine is abundant in halophilic microorganisms and confers resistance to salt and temperature stress.Ectothiorhodospira halochloris was originally discovered in the microorganism Ectothiorhodospira halochloris,but has since been found in a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Other bacterial species in which ectoine has been found include:

  • Brevibacterium flaxenum. Ectoine powder

  • Halomonas elongata.

  • Halococcus.

  • Pseudomonas stutzeri

  • Halomonas titanicae.

  • Halorhodospira halophila.

  • Halomonas ventosae.


Ectoine is synthesized from aspartic acid β-semialdehyde through three consecutive enzymatic reactions.The genes involved in biosynthesis are called ectA, ectB and ectC, which encode L-2,4-diaminobutyrate acetyltransferase, L-2,4-diaminobutyrate transaminase and L-ectoine synthase, respectively..

Use in cosmetics

Ectoine is used as an active ingredient in skin care and sun care products.It stabilizes proteins and other cellular structures and protects the skin from stress such as UV exposure and dryness.

Medical use

Due to its protein stabilizing properties, ectoine has been evaluated as a topical treatment for hay fever. Nasal sprays containing ectoine were as effective as cromolyn and were reported to be well tolerated by patients.It is available in over-the-counter pharmacies in the EU.