Views: 11 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-11-18 Origin: Site
Ellagic acid is a polyphenolic compound found in a variety of fruits and nuts,such as raspberries,grapes,strawberries, pomegranates,and walnuts.Studies have shown that it has antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on certain cancer cell lines. Like other polyphenolic phytochemicals,ellagic acid has shown antioxidant effects in in vitro and in vivo models.In dermatological applications,ellagic acid is very effective in improving the signs of UV-induced skin aging and treating hyperpigmentation,showing good application prospects.
Ellagic acid in the treatment of UV-induced skin photoaging
The mechanisms by which ellagic acid protects skin from UV-induced skin damage are multifaceted.Available evidence suggests that ellagic acid reduces UV-induced production of matrix metalloproteinases,thereby reducing collagen degradation. In addition,ellagic acid up-regulated Nrf2 (Nrf2 is a transcription factor that controls the expression of several genes encoding antioxidant proteins and cytoprotective mechanisms).Evidence on the effectiveness of ellagic acid in preventing photodamage is limited (see table below).A recent study showed that topical treatment of ellagic acid (10 ¦Ìmol/L) in SKH-1 hairless mice resulted in fewer skin wrinkles after 8 weeks of exposure to UVB compared to untreated mice .
Ellagic acid improves pigmentation
Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that is key to the production of melanin.Ellagic acid inhibits tyrosinase through active-site copper chelation,thereby reducing the formation of melanine.2 in vivo studies suggest that ellagic acid may be effective in treating hyperpigmentation.Shimogaki reported that topical application of ellagic acid (1% w/v) improved UV-induced hyperpigmentation within four weeks; Yoshimura demonstrated that oral administration of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate extract (100 mg/kg/day) vs 1000 mg/kg/day) inhibited UV-induced hyperpigmentation in a dose-dependent manner in brown guinea pigs.In addition, several human clinical trials have also tested the effectiveness of ellagic acid in treating hyperpigmentation.A randomized,double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that oral administration of ellagic acid-rich punicic acid tablets (100-200 mg/day) significantly inhibited hyperpigmentation in subjects with mild sunburn from UV exposure.In a randomized,open-label study,Ertam et al compared the efficacy of synthetic 1% ellagic acid,naturally derived 1% ellagic acid,and 1% arbutin in the treatment of melasma.Both formulations of ellagic acid are as effective as the well-known lightening agent arbutin in improving pigment density.
A recent study reported that combination therapy of topical 0.5% ellagic acid and 0.1% salicylic acid was as effective as 4% hydroquinone in improving several clinical and instrumental measures of pigmentation.Available evidence already suggests that ellagic acid may reduce UV-induced skin aging and wrinkles in the body.Of course,further research is needed to determine the clinical effect of ellagic acid as a prevention or treatment of premature photoaging.Additionally,some studies show that topical and oral forms of ellagic acid are effective in preventing and treating hyperpigmentation.While hydroquinone is considered the gold standard for lightening and freckle removal, it can lead to permanent skin discoloration.In contrast,ellagic acid has not been found to have damaging effects on melanocytes and may be a safe alternative.Ellagic acid is also one of the effective whitening ingredients recognized by dermatological medicine. It is a polyphenolic molecule that is widely found in a variety of plants and fruits in nature.
It is used for skin whitening,inhibits tyrosinase activity,blocks melanin production, and has the effect of whitening and lightening spots.Effectively protect cells from external damage.In terms of inhibiting lipid peroxidation,ellagic acid is considered to be the most effective inhibitor of the initial stage of microsomal NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation,and ellagic acid can also strongly inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by doxorubicin .Ellagic acid inhibits ferromyoglobin/hydrogen peroxide-dependent lipid peroxidation.Ellagic acid can block lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by foreign substances in T cells,inhibit the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS),and improve cell death caused by cytotoxicity.Ellagic acid reduces cellular damage caused by radiation,hydrogen peroxide,and mitomycin C in mouse bone marrow cells.Ellagic acid effectively inhibits the oxidation of DCDHF induced by pernitrite as well as the oxidation of pernitrite itself.At the same time, ellagic acid prevented pernitrite-induced single-strand breaks and nitration of tyrosyl groups in bovine serum albumin in pTZ 18U plasmid DNA.Thus in vitro, ellagic acid protects biomolecules from pernitrite-induced oxidative and nitrative damage.