Views: 2 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-05-22 Origin: Site
Dihydroxyacetone DHA, also known as glycerol, is a simple sugar (triose).DHA is primarily used as an ingredient in sunless tanning products.It is often derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane, and glycerol fermentation.
DHA can be prepared together with glyceraldehyde by mild oxidation of glycerol, for example using hydrogen peroxide and ferrous salts as catalysts.It can also be prepared from glycerol in high yield and selectivity at room temperature using cationic palladium-based catalysts with oxygen, air, or benzoquinone as co-oxidants.Glyceraldehyde is a structural isomer of dihydroxyacetone.
Its phosphorylated form, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), is involved in glycolysis and is an intermediate in fructose metabolism.
The acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans both use glycerol as a carbon source to form dihydroxyacetone.DHA is formed ketogenically from glycerol.It affects the sensory quality of wines with sweet/ether notes.DHA can also react with proline to create a "husk-like" aroma.Dihydroxyacetone can affect antimicrobial activity in wine due to its ability to bind SO2.
Coppertone introduced the first consumer sunless tanning lotions to the market in the 1960's.The product was called "Quick Tan" or "QT".It was sold as an overnight tanner, and other companies followed suit with similar products.Consumers quickly tire of the product because of less-than-desirable results such as orange palms, stripes and poor colour. Many people still associate sunless tan with fake orange tan because of QT experience.In the 1970s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permanently added DHA to its list of approved cosmetic ingredients.By the 1980s, new sunless tanning formulas were on the market, and improvements in the DHA manufacturing process created products with more natural colors and better fading.Consumer concerns about the damage associated with UV tanning options have fueled further popularity of sunless tanning products as an alternative to UV tanning.Dozens of brands are on drugstore shelves in a variety of formulations.Today, DHA is the main active ingredient in many sunless tanning skin care products.Lotion manufacturers also produce a variety of sunless tanning preparations that replace DHA with natural bronzing agents such as black walnut shells. DHA can be used alone or in combination with other tanning ingredients such as erythrulose.DHA is considered the most effective sunless tanning additive.
Sunless tanning products contain DHA in concentrations of 1% to 20%.Most drugstore products contain between 3% and 5%, and professional products contain between 5% and 20%.The percentages correspond to the level of product coloration from light to dark. Lighter products are more beginner-friendly, but may require multiple coats to create the desired depth of color.Darker products produce a deep tan in one coat, but are also more prone to streaking,Uneven or color cast. A faux tan takes 2 to 4 hours to start appearing on the skin's surface and will continue to darken for 24 to 72 hours, depending on the type of formula.Once the darkening effect occurs, the tan does not wash off with sweat, nor with soap or water. It will gradually fade over 3 to 10 days.Exfoliation, prolonged soaking in water, or profuse sweating can lighten your tan, as these will help quickly remove dead skin cells (the untanned colored parts).Current sunless tanners are formulated as sprays, lotions, gels, mousses, and makeup wipes.Products for professional applications include booth and airbrush tanning applications as well as hand lotions, gels, mousses and wipes.