Order online or call us: +86-153-0920-6328
Home / News / Glycyrrhizin and Flavouring properties

Glycyrrhizin and Flavouring properties

Views: 1     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-03-17      Origin: Site

Glycyrrhizin (or glycyrrhizic acid or glycyrrhizic acid) is the main sweetening component of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root.Structurally, it is a saponin that is used as an emulsifier and gel former in food and cosmetics.Its aglycone is enoxone.


After oral administration, glycyrrhizin is hydrolyzed by gut bacteria to 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (enolone). After absorption from the gut, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid is metabolized in the liver to 3β-monoglucurono-18β-glycyrrhetinic acid.This metabolite circulates in the blood. Therefore, its oral bioavailability is poor.It is mostly eliminated by bile and only a small fraction (0.31–0.67%) is eliminated by urine.Following oral administration of 600 mg of glycyrrhizin, metabolites appear in the urine 1.5 to 14 hours later. Maximal concentrations (0.49 to 2.69 mg/L) were reached after 1.5 to 39 hours and metabolites were detectable in urine after 2 to 4 days.

Flavouring properties Glycyrrhizin powder

Glycyrrhizin is an extract obtained from licorice roots that are macerated and boiled in water.Licorice root extract (glycyrrhizin) is sold in the United States as a liquid, paste, or spray-dried powder.It is approved for use as a flavoring and fragrance in processed foods, beverages,confectionary, dietary supplements and seasonings when specified amounts are reached.It is 30 to 50 times sweeter than sucrose.

Side effects

The most widely reported side effect of using glycyrrhizin through consumption of black licorice is decreased blood potassium levels, which can affect fluid balance and neurological function.Long-term consumption of black licorice, even in moderate amounts, can cause an increase in blood pressure may cause irregular heartbeats, and may have adverse interactions with prescription medications.In extreme cases, overconsumption can lead to death.


Enoxone (INN, BAN; also known as glycyrrhetinic acid or glycyrrhetinic acid) is a β-amyrin-type pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative obtained by the hydrolysis of glycyrrhizic acid which is obtained from the herb Licorice acquired.It is used in flavoring to mask the bitterness of medicines like aloe and quinine.It is effective in treating peptic ulcers and also has expectorant (antitussive) properties.It has some additional pharmacological properties and may have antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, and antibacterial activities.

Mechanism of action

Glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits the enzymes that metabolize the prostaglandins PGE-2 and PGF-2α to their respective inactive 15-keto-13,14-dihydro metabolites (15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and delta-13-prostaglandin ).This increases prostaglandins in the digestive system.Prostaglandins inhibit the secretion of gastric juice, stimulate intestinal pancreatic secretion and mucus secretion, and significantly increase intestinal peristalsis.They also cause cells in the stomach to proliferate.The promoting effect of licorice on gastric acid secretion, mucus secretion and cell proliferation explains why licorice has the potential to treat peptic ulcer.Licorice should not be taken during pregnancy because PGF-2α can stimulate uterine activity during pregnancy and cause miscarriage.Glycyrrhetinic acid is similar in structure to cortisone.Both molecules are flat and similar at positions 3 and 11.This may underlie the anti-inflammatory effects of licorice.

3-β-D-(Monoglucuronyl)-18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid, a metabolite of glycyrrhetinic acid, inhibits the conversion of "active" cortisol to "inactive" cortisone in the kidney.This occurs through inhibition of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.As a result, cortisol levels become elevated in the collecting ducts of the kidneys.Cortisol has intrinsic mineralocorticoid properties (ie, it acts like aldosterone and increases sodium reabsorption), acting on ENaC channels in the collecting duct.Hypertension develops as a result of this sodium retention mechanism.People often suffer from high blood pressure with low renin and low aldosterone blood levels.Increased amounts of cortisol bind to unprotected nonspecific mineralocorticoid receptors, leading to sodium and fluid retention, hypokalemia, hypertension, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.Therefore, licorice should not be administered to patients with a known history of hypertension in doses sufficient to inhibit 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.