Views: 1 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-08-02 Origin: Site
Rosmarinic acid is a water-soluble natural phenolic acid compound isolated from rosemary, a plant of the Lamiaceae family. Among the various plants of the Umbelliferae, the highest content is especially in the Lamiaceae and the comfrey.
Rosmarinic acid is a natural antioxidant with strong antioxidant activity. Its antioxidant activity is stronger than vitamin E, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, folic acid, etc. It helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals, The risk of cancer and arteriosclerosis is thus reduced.
1. Antioxidant effect
Rosmarinic acid has a strong scavenging activity of free radicals in the body and an antioxidant effect. Studies have shown that its mechanism of action is: rosmarinic acid competes with unsaturated fatty acids to combine with lipid peroxy groups to terminate the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation and reduce the rate of lipid peroxidation, while rosmarinic acid is oxidized to Quinoid; marinic acid inhibits neutrophil respiratory burst and inhibits lysosome release by reducing intracellular calcium ion concentration; inhibits endothelial cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. The antioxidant effect of rosmarinic acid is related to its structure. Studies have shown that the hydroxyl group of ortho-diphenol is the material basis of free radical scavenging activity. And the conjugated double bond at the C3 position has a synergistic effect.
2. Antidepressant effect
Rosmarinic acid has antidepressant effects in animal models of depression. Experiments were performed on cell proliferation in the hippocampus of mice, and bromodeoxyuridine antibody was used for immunohistochemical analysis to explore its mechanism of action. It was found that in the rosmarinic acid treatment group, the labeled proliferative cells increased, combined with the forced swimming of depression animal models. Experiments have shown that rosmarinic acid proliferates and produces an antidepressant-like effect at least in part through the proliferation of new cells in the hippocampus.
3. Antibacterial effect of rosmarinic acid
Rosmarinic acid has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. Rosmarinic acid has obvious inhibitory effect on bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus luteus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Rhizococcus solani. It has been scientifically found that rosmarinic acid can inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus caries and Streptococcus mutans, and reduce their glucosyltransferase activity, indicating that rosmarinic acid can be used for the prevention and treatment of oral diseases. Research on the antibacterial mechanism of rosmarinic acid shows that: on the one hand, rosmarinic acid can increase the permeability of bacterial cell membranes, resulting in a large amount of sugar and protein leakage, affecting the normal metabolism of bacteria; on the other hand, it can also affect bacterial protein It also inhibits Taq DNA polymerase. Rosmarinic acid has antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, but Staphylococcus aureus is significantly more sensitive to rosmarinic acid than Escherichia coli.
(1) Inhibition of bacteria: Rosmarinic acid has a significant inhibitory effect on Bacillus subtilis, Luccinococcus and Escherichia coli.
(2) Inhibitory fungi: the inhibitory activity of rosmarinic acid on mycelial growth and spore germination of different phytopathogenic fungi.
(3) Inhibition of mold: Rosmarinic acid extracted from plants has an inhibitory effect on Phytophthora and its mold spores that cause soil-borne diseases, effectively reducing the germination of zoospores.
4. Anti-inflammatory effects of rosmarinic acid
(1) Anti-nephritis effect: Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the proliferation of mesangial cells and glomerular expansion.
(2) Anti-hepatitis effect: Rosmarinic acid can alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury and significantly inhibit the increase of plasma transaminase levels, which proves that the liver protective effect of rosmarinic acid is through the removal or reduction of superoxide. or oxidized nitrite rather than by inhibiting TNF-α.
(3) Anti-pneumonic effect: Rosmarinic acid inhibits diesel exhaust particulate-induced neutrophil retention and lung injury characterized by interstitial edema.
(4) Anti-arthritis effect: Rosmarinic acid can inhibit collagen-induced arthritis and significantly reduce the number of arthritis and affected joints.
(5) Anti-periodontitis effect: Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the formation of bacterial plaque, thereby preventing chronic gingivitis.
(6) Anti-dermatitis effect: Rosmarinic acid has a relieving effect on atopic dermatitis, also known as atopic eczema or atopic eczema.
5. Antiviral effects of rosmarinic acid
(1) Anti-herpes virus: rosmarinic acid shows special activity on type I and type II herpes simplex virus, and is an effective ingredient for controlling herpes disease. , but also rapidly combined with the viral coat protein, thereby inactivating the virus.
(2) Anti-HIV: Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the activity of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus 1) integrase.
(3) Anti-encephalitis virus: Rosmarinic acid can reduce the mortality rate of mice with Japanese encephalitis virus, significantly reduce the viral load, and make the virus difficult to spread.
6. Anti-cancer and anti-tumor effects of rosmarinic acid: Rosmarinic acid inhibits the expression of CCL11 and CCR3 by inhibiting the activity of β-kinase and the activation of related genes by nuclear factor kappa B, so as to achieve the purpose of anti-tumor.
7. Anti-allergic effect of rosmarinic acid: Rosmarinic acid can inhibit allergic inflammation induced by microallergens.
8. Antioxidative effect of rosmarinic acid: Rosmarinic acid has good free radical scavenging and antioxidant effects.
9. Antithrombotic and antiplatelet aggregation effects of rosmarinic acid: Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the formation of malondialdehyde in human platelets in vitro, and its IC50 value is 3.37nmol/L, indicating that rosmarinic acid has antiplatelet aggregation activity.
10. Antidepressant effects of rosmarinic acid
11. Anti-radiation and UV-protection of rosmarinic acid: Rosmarinic acid can be used as a photoprotectant to protect against radiation and UV rays.
Rosmarinic acid has strong anti-inflammatory activity, while rosmarinic acid also has antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor activities, and has the properties of inhibiting acute and chronic infections, anti-ultraviolet rays, and inhibiting elastin degradation. Acids become additives in cosmetics. At present, rosmarinic acid has shown its important application value in the fields of pharmacy, food, cosmetics and so on.
1. Food field
As a natural and efficient antioxidant, rosmarinic acid can replace BHA and BHT in animal and vegetable oils, dairy products, oil-rich foods, candy and baked foods; it can also be used as a spice in various soups and flavored foods; And both antiseptic and antibacterial effect. In Japan, rosmarinic acid-rich shiso extract is used as a garnish to improve the shelf life of fresh seafood.
2. Health care products
Anti-tumor, anti-hepatitis and protection of liver damage, anti-nephritis, anti-thrombotic and anti-platelet aggregation, as well as refreshing, enhancing memory, improving tension and drowsiness.
It can be used in skin care products to remove freckles, anti-oxidation, increase skin elasticity, and delay aging; when used in shampoos and hair care products, it can promote scalp blood circulation, improve hair loss, and reduce the occurrence and irritation of dandruff Hair grows and moisturizes. Therefore, rosmarinic acid can be used as an excellent additive in cosmetics.