Views: 2 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-10-05 Origin: Site
The topic of anti-aging has become more and more popular in recent years, and various studies have emerged one after another.
From time to time, a research group finds a certain anti-aging substance that can make humans live a hundred years longer. Hayflick, of telomere theory, said: Our human lifespan limit is 150 years, because telomeres shorten a little every 2-3 years, and cells can divide about 50 times. There are also some optimistic experts who say: The first person to live to 1000 years old has already been born, in our world, maybe it is you.
With the development of biomolecular biology, we may one day discover magical substances that will make us live longer. So, live a healthy life, work hard to earn money, and wait for the day when the technology matures, maybe you can really live a hundred years.
Today, I will introduce 16 kinds of longevity supplements that are recognized as the most promising, and see how many of them are familiar to you.
16 longevity supplements
Rapamycin, also known as sirolimus, is primarily used to suppress immunity and is useful for overactive immune systems and to ensure successful transplants.
Rapamycin has senomorphics properties that alter cellular senescence phenotypes and can prevent senescent (zombie) cells from releasing inflammatory molecules.
There are two approaches to intervening in aging: senolytics work primarily by eliminating senescent cells; while senomorphics work by modulating the properties of senescent cells, rejuvenating them.
Research in recent years has found that rapamycin improves cellular health, potentially extending healthy lifespan.
Rapamycin inhibits the mTOR target and has antifungal, immunosuppressive and anticancer properties.
Rapamycin does not completely suppress the immune response, but prevents the immune overreaction. Healthy people don't have to worry about losing their immunity after taking it.
mTOR is involved in many aging-related processes, including cellular senescence, immune responses, cell stemness regulation, autophagy, mitochondrial function, and protein homeostasis.
mTOR acts as a cellular nutrient sensor and energy regulator, regulating cellular anabolism, cell cycle progression, and cell growth.
It can also cause the same effect of fasting and fasting, raising blood sugar, but this reaction is generally mild and reversible, and it can be recovered after stopping.
Metformin is an old friend that many people are familiar with. Although it is a diabetes drug, it has anti-aging, anti-tumor and cardiovascular protection effects. Related reading → Why is metformin anti-aging and longevity
It works in three ways:
1. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, resulting in an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio, and then activation of AMPK.
Activating AMPK can:
①Inhibit the downstream mTOR pathway, thereby improving nutrient sensing and autophagy.
②Activate the PGC-1α signaling pathway, promote mitochondrial growth, and inhibit telomere shortening.
③Transcriptional regulation through histone modification and miRNA to exert anti-aging effect.
Extracellularly, metformin can down-regulate insulin/IGF1 signaling and also indirectly lead to the inhibition of mTOR signaling.
2. The inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain by metformin also leads to AMPK-independent anti-aging effects, including reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), thereby reducing macromolecular damage.
3. It exerts AMPK-independent anti-inflammatory and anti-aging effects by down-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, NF-κB signaling, and activating NRF2-Gpx7 and ATM-signaling pathways.
However, taking metformin has some side effects: vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies, low blood sugar, lactic acid buildup, gastrointestinal upset, and more.
Spermidine is a natural component of sperm, our bodies (both male and female), only produce one third of spermidine in our body, the rest comes from our diet.
Its food sources include: aged cheese, mushrooms, natto, green peppers, wheat germ, cauliflower, broccoli, etc.
Asians have higher dietary intake of subspermic acid, which may be related to their longevity.
Research on spermidine has grown in recent years, and current research has found that it has the following effects:
Extend healthy lifespan
Improve the cognitive level of the elderly
Reduce all-cause mortality
Lower blood pressure
Induce autophagy and delay aging
Allows for faster hair growth and stronger nails.
Molecular hydrogen (H2)
Hydrogen is one of the oldest and most abundant elements in the universe. Hydrogen molecular medicine is an emerging discipline. Previously used to treat respiratory diseases, scientists are now exploring its role in the field of "cancer control".
Free radicals are not always bad and are sometimes important signaling molecules, but most antioxidants, indiscriminately scavenge all free radicals, which can cause damage to normal cells and tissues in the body.
Molecular hydrogen can selectively scavenge harmful reactive free radicals and oxygen species that interfere with normal cell function, reducing oxidative stress levels in patients.
In addition to reducing ROS levels and increasing the content of coenzyme CoQ10 to fight aging, molecular hydrogen has been scientifically proven:
Reduce oxidative stress
Activation of the Nrf2 endogenous antioxidant pathway
Maintain mitochondrial function
Prevent damage from chronic stress
Epitalon is a synthetic anti-aging peptide produced from the amino acid chain Alanine-Glutamate-Asparagine-Glycine, which upregulates the activity of telomerase in the body to help reduce the rate of aging.
Telomeres are like safety caps that protect DNA. Most chromosomes in the body have telomeres at both ends. The main function of telomerase is to help maintain the length of telomeres in the body.
There are some diseases that are associated with too short telomeres, leading to faster aging; Epitalon can be used to treat diseases that lead to premature aging, such as Bloom syndrome, Werner syndrome, etc.
Epitalon also helps reduce the risk of diseases associated with telomerase deficiency, such as diabetes, because insulin secretion is inhibited by telomerase deficiency.
The peptide may also have a positive impact on heart health and may help prevent heart disease; scientists are studying its potential in treating tumors.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)
NAD+ is the energy currency of the body. It can be said that without it, the body cannot last for more than 30 seconds. More than 500 physiological processes in the body require NAD+ to function.
As we age, NAD+ declines, so does our energy levels and bodily functions, which is the main principle behind cellular aging.
With the reduction of NAD+ in the body, aging will be accelerated, inflammation will increase, and various diseases will appear.
There are 3 main ways to increase NAD+ levels and delay aging: replenish NAD+ precursors, activate NAD biosynthetic enzymes, and inhibit NAD+ degradation.
Vitamin B3 is recognized as the safest and most efficient NAD+ precursor, of course, NR and NMN are also available, but the safety of human clinical has not been verified.
In addition to taking supplements, dietary and lifestyle changes can also increase nad+ levels, eat more foods containing NAD+ precursors, avoid high-sugar diets, reduce stress, and improve sleep quality.
The integrated stress response (ISR) is usually responsible for detecting the problem of protein production in cells. If abnormality is found, ISR can respond by inhibiting the cellular protein synthesis mechanism; while ISRIB represents the inhibitor of ISR.
The protein production in the body's cells is gradually damaged with aging. The damage process is due to the chronic inflammatory process that occurs in the body, which gradually erodes the cells and eventually leads to the extensive activation of the integrated stress response (ISR).
ISRIB may have a wide range of effects on neurological diseases, it can improve or even reverse Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Down's syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and age-related cognitive decline, etc. Nervous system disease.
A 2013 rodent study found that it significantly enhanced memory and also restored memory in aged mice with non-traumatic brain injury.
Frontier research in 2020 found that ISRIB could reverse age-related memory decline in aged mice.
It has not been observed that ISRIB can cause serious side effects, and maybe in the near future, ISRIB can become a miraculous and powerful anti-aging drug.
Affectionately known as "nature's sunscreen," astaxanthin is the compound that gives the flesh of krill and salmon its red color, and as a supplement, it is a potent antioxidant that protects the brain, nervous system, heart and mitochondria.
With systemic effects, astaxanthin is an all-rounder, from improving skin and protecting against UV rays, to scavenging free radicals to reducing inflammation, to enhancing brain function.
Astaxanthin not only has strong antioxidant capacity, but also has the advantages of systematic anti-aging.
Improve the synthesis rate of antioxidant enzymes in the human body to achieve endogenous anti-aging
Remove free radicals represented by singlet oxygen in the human body
Promotes elastin and collagen synthesis
Induce autophagy and delay aging
For antioxidants, especially photoaging, be sure to try supplementing with astaxanthin and omega-3.
The main reasons for the popularity of the ketogenic diet include weight loss and mental clarity.
When the body starts to burn body fat, it produces ketone bodies, which provide the brain with clean energy and enhance brain performance.
Ketone bodies have anti-aging effects. Studies have found that BHB (beta-hydroxybutyric acid) can promote cell division, prevent cell aging, and keep blood vessels and the brain young.
The body can produce ketones by avoiding carbohydrates or by taking exogenous ketone supplements to speed up the process and reduce the pain of the transition, known as the "keto flu."
Following a ketogenic diet, or taking exogenous ketone supplements, can slow aging, improve cognitive performance, and help avoid neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.
As we age, some of our cells escape the immune system's clean-up. These "surviving" cells cannot perform their original role, but are still consuming energy at the same time.
Such cells that "eat without work", also known as "zombie cells", or senescent cells, will accumulate with age, reducing the efficiency of the body's operation.
Fasting, exercise, and other healthy lifestyles trigger autophagy, which clears out zombie cells.
Dasatinib, a chemotherapy drug used to treat leukemia, can also effectively remove senescent adipocytes and reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the body's adipose tissue.
It is the first senolytics drug to be discovered, that is, a drug that can selectively remove senescent cells by interfering with the senescent cell signaling pathway and temporarily disable the SCAP (anti-apoptotic pathway).
Substances that can remove senescent cells include PCC1 of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and other ingredients such as quercetin.
The active compounds of cannabis are collectively known as cannabinoids, a group of terpene phenolic compounds, the most famous of which are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).
THC is a regulated Class I psychotropic drug in China.
CBD can fight free radicals in skin cells, play the role of anti-oxidation and delay aging, and is often added to skin care products, and is often used to relieve chronic pain, and the effect is very good.
Everyone is familiar with resveratrol, but fewer people know about pterostilbene, which is the methylated form of resveratrol.
The bioavailability of pterostilbene is stronger than that of resveratrol, and it is the best natural plant anti-aging agent found so far.
Strong free radical scavenger
Boost endogenous antioxidants
Activate AMP kinase
Simulates caloric restriction (tricks your body into cellular regeneration that normally only happens when you're starving)
Enhance DNA repair mechanisms
At present, the nad + supplement NMN is very popular, and it is often used in combination with pterostilbene. The two "carrying hands" in the anti-aging and anti-oxidation field are powerfully combined, and the effect is doubled!
Fullerene is particularly well-known in the skin care industry. It easily reacts with free radicals and has super free radical absorption capacity. It is known as a "sponge that absorbs free radicals".
In one study, it was also shown to have a powerful lifespan extension, extending lifespan by 90 percent in rats; other mouse studies have shown increases of 5 percent to 14 percent.
It works in two ways: removing metabolic waste, and neutralizing free radicals, and its other benefits include:
Prevent skin damage
Turmeric is a very Indian-flavored ingredient, and curcumin, the most studied active ingredient in turmeric, has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
Studies have shown that curcumin can activate sirtuins (deacetylases), and AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), which help delay cellular aging and prolong lifespan.
In addition, curcumin has been shown to fight cellular damage and significantly extend lifespan in fruit flies, roundworms and mice; it also delays the onset of age-related diseases and reduces symptoms of age-related diseases.
Turmeric is India's anti-aging leader, while the Chinese, Russians, and Navians rely on Rhodiola rosea, a rare medicinal plant.
Several studies in athletes and astronauts have shown that Rhodiola can reduce and treat disease and improve overall health, and this effect has also been observed in healthy people.
The longevity effect of Rhodiola rosea is worthy of recognition, and it has many other effects:
Enhance DNA repair
Improved adaptation to hypoxia and angiogenesis
You can try these food ingredients slowly, there is no need to try them all, and some ingredients have certain side effects in excess, please adjust them according to the feedback of your body.
Premature aging has been classified as a disease.
More and more scientists are devoted to the study of anti-aging, hoping to discover more useful substances, prolong lifespan and improve the quality of life.
However, it is worth reminding that if you eat and drink a lot, eat sugar, eat a lot of carbohydrates, smoke, stress, stay up late, and sleep well every day.
You have these bad habits, but it is impossible to rely on some artifact to make you immortal.
Most of the time, you don't need a priceless lab to slow down aging, and it's recommended to start with a simple diet.
1, usually pay attention not to eat too much, through fasting,Exercise or a low-carb ketogenic diet to naturally increase ketone levels.
2. Use NAD+ precursors to replenish energy for cells and fight aging.
3. Usually pay attention to eat more nutrient-dense foods:
For example, eat some salmon to supplement oemga-3, krill to obtain astaxanthin, or eat some foods rich in curcumin, eat animal offal, egg yolks and other foods with high nutrient density.