Views: 3 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-09-23 Origin: Site
Licorice contains glycyrrhizic acid, saponins, asparagine, sugars, resins, bittern, some volatile oils and other compounds.
The main components of licorice are: triterpenoid saponin glycyrrhizic acid, and a mixture of calcium and potassium glycyrrhizic acid salts.
Other ingredients include: triterpenoid saponins (glabridin, mesperiol, glabriolide, isoglycyrrhiziolide, glabriol), isoflavones (7-hydroxy-4-methoxyisoflavone, neoglycyrrhizin, glabridinone) , eliquiritigenin), triterpenoid sterols (formononeol, beta-amyrin and stigmasterol), coumarins (cymenolide and umbelliferone). The hydrophobic component of licorice is glabridin, which is also a key ingredient used in cosmetics. And several flavonoids are hydrophilic compounds, such as: glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizic acid.
It shows a strong anti-free radical oxidation effect in the cytochrome P450/NADPH oxidation system, and can significantly inhibit the free radicals generated in the body's metabolic process, so as to avoid oxidation-sensitive biological macromolecules (low-density lipoprotein LDL, DNA) and cell walls are oxidatively damaged by free radicals. Therefore, some pathological changes related to free radical oxidation, such as atherosclerosis and cell senescence, can be prevented. In addition, glabridin has certain effects of lowering blood lipid and lowering blood pressure. Italian studies have also confirmed that Glabridin has an appetite suppressant effect, reducing fat without losing weight.
After repeated tests, it is mainly composed of the following effects 1: whitening, inhibiting melaninogen; 2: anti-inflammatory effect 3: antioxidant effect 4: antibacterial.
Glycyrrhizin, a hydrophobic component in licorice extract, has a very good anti-inflammatory and whitening effect. Glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhizic acid also have anti-inflammatory properties. These hydrophobic components are licorice and other flavonoids, which have the effect of inhibiting melanin. In vivo and in vitro experiments have been done on the activity of licorice in inhibiting melanin production.
In cosmetics, in order to achieve the whitening effect, the recommended dosage of the patent is 0.001-3% of licorice, preferably 0.001-1%. 1:10 with glycerol, low temperature added. Topical licorice can inhibit the formation of melanin. It has excellent tyrosinase inhibitory activity and can prevent skin tanning, line spots and sunburn. The recommended dosage is 0.0007-0.05%. In order to suppress male hormones and treat acne, the dosage of glabridin is 0.01-0.5%.
Glabridin is very scarce, and the price of raw materials is comparable to gold. The price of 1g of Glabridin ≈ 1g of gold. Therefore, Glabridin glabra is called "whitening gold" in the industry. The root of Glabridin glabra is artificially cut and dried, and then 10 steps of precise purification using modern technology. After more than 100 hours of separation and purification, high-purity Glabridin can be extracted. The extraction and purification process is cumbersome and difficult to extract, so basically only high-end international brands are available. Skin care lines are being added.
1. Whitening and yellowing
Glabridin can eliminate free radicals in the human body and melanin deposited at the bottom of the skin. For people who are born with dark skin, yellow skin, or who have become black and yellow the day after tomorrow, it is very effective to choose to use it to achieve whitening. And it will not cause other damage to the skin, it is definitely worth having.
In addition to whitening, it also has a very powerful anti-aging effect. This has a lot to do with the scavenging of free radicals mentioned above. Because of the reduction of free radicals, our aging speed will also become slower. The vitality of human cells will also be better preserved, which can timely and effectively avoid skin aging, relaxation, etc., as well as the aging of internal organs due to lack of cell vitality.
3. Lower blood lipids and blood pressure
Studies have shown that glabridin also has a good effect on lowering blood pressure and blood lipids. For those who have long-term high values ??of these two values, glabridin is the best choice. At the same time, it also has a certain appetite suppressant effect, which can help effectively reduce fat, but it will not significantly reduce weight.
The synthesis of melanin must have 3 basic substances:
1. Tyrosine: the main raw material for making melanin
2. Tyrosinase: the main rate-limiting enzyme for the conversion of tyrosine to melanin, a combination of copper and protein
3. Oxygen: tyrosine produces melanin under the action of tyrosinase, which is an oxidation process and must be combined with oxygen to convert into melanin
Classification of principles of whitening ingredients
1. Inhibit melanin: blocking whitening
It is also a common whitening ingredient, such as kojic acid, arbutin, etc., which can inhibit the production of melanin and have a strong light spot effect.
Disadvantages: It often needs to penetrate into the bottom layer of the skin to exert its blocking effect, which puts forward higher requirements for product formulations
2. Intercepting melanin: that is, inhibiting the transport of melanin from melanocytes to keratinocytes, such as vitamin B3
3. Lighten melanin: redox whitening
The darkening of the skin and the formation of spots is itself a process of skin oxidation. Vitamin C and its derivatives that we are familiar with are strong antioxidant guardians, which can restore the oxidized process, inhibit the oxidation reaction of melanin, and make the skin gradually whiter.
Disadvantages: It is not a stable guardian, it is easily decomposed in the air and loses its efficacy
4. Metabolize melanin: metabolic whitening
Like fruit acid, salicylic acid, vitamin A alcohol, etc., it peels off the excessive stratum corneum of the skin like opening an egg shell, thereby taking melanin away from the skin and regenerating the skin
Disadvantages: This whitening method is only to remove melanin on the surface of the skin, and melanin exists in the bottom layer of the skin and is constantly produced outwards, so this method can cure the symptoms but not the root cause, and it needs to be used in combination with deep whitening products, and sensitive skin should be careful To use this exfoliating whitening method, it should be combined with moisturizing and sun protection.
Tyrosinase is the main component of melanin formation. The process of whitening and lightening can be regarded as a process of fighting against tyrosinase.
Generally speaking, there are basically two ways to use topical whitening agents to reduce pigmentation:
1. Inhibit the formation of tyrosinase by means of anti-inflammatory or antioxidant
2. By forcibly reducing tyrosinase to achieve lightening of pigmentation
The whitening and lightening effect of licorice depends on its main active ingredient: licorice. The mechanism of action of licorice in whitening and lightening of spots covers the first and second types, which are rare in whitening raw materials. Its mild but powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties are similar to tranexamic acid (for now, it is the most powerful)
It has been confirmed in the four-phase clinical trials abroad: under the condition of no cytotoxicity, the inhibition rate of licorice on tyrosinase can reach 50%, which is 16 times higher than that of hydroquinone (hydroquinone).